Virtual Iraq: Initial Results from a VR Exposure Therapy Application for Combat-Related PTSD (bibtex)
	title = {Virtual {Iraq}: {Initial} {Results} from a {VR} {Exposure} {Therapy} {Application} for {Combat}-{Related} {PTSD}},
	volume = {16},
	url = {},
	abstract = {Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggests that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality (VR) delivered exposure therapy for PTSD has been used with reports of positive outcomes. The aim of the current paper is to present the rationale and brief description of a Virtual Iraq PTSD VR therapy application and present initial findings from its use with PTSD patients. Thus far, Virtual Iraq consists of a series of customizable virtual scenarios designed to represent relevant Middle Eastern VR contexts for exposure therapy, including a city and desert road convoy environment. User-centered design feedback needed to iteratively evolve the system was gathered from returning Iraq War veterans in the USA and from a system deployed in Iraq and tested by an Army Combat Stress Control Team. Clinical trials are currently underway at Ft. Lewis, Camp Pendleton, Emory University, Weill Cornell Medical College, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, San Diego Naval Medical Center and 12 other sites.},
	journal = {Medicine Meets Virtual Reality},
	author = {Rizzo, Albert and Graap, Ken and Perlman, Karen and McLay, Robert N. and Rothbaum, Barbara O. and Reger, Greg and Parsons, Thomas D. and Difede, JoAnn and Pair, Jarrell},
	year = {2008},
	keywords = {MedVR, Virtual Humans},
	pages = {420--425}
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