Virtual Iraq: Initial Case Reports from a VR Exposure Therapy Application for Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (bibtex)
	title = {Virtual {Iraq}: {Initial} {Case} {Reports} from a {VR} {Exposure} {Therapy} {Application} for {Combat}-{Related} {Post} {Traumatic} {Stress} {Disorder}},
	volume = {27},
	url = {},
	abstract = {Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggests that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality (VR) delivered exposure therapy for PTSD has been used with reports of positive outcomes. The aim of the current paper is to present the rationale and brief description of a Virtual Iraq PTSD VR therapy application and present initial findings from two successfully treated patients. The VR treatment environment was created via the recycling of virtual graphic assets that were initially built for the U.S. Army-funded combat tactical simulation scenario and commercially successful X-Box game, Full Spectrum Warrior, in addition to other available and newly created assets. Thus far, Virtual Iraq consists of a series of customizable virtual scenarios designed to represent relevant Middle Eastern VR contexts for exposure therapy, including a city and desert road convoy environment. User-centered design feedback needed to iteratively evolve the system was gathered from returning Iraq War veterans in the USA and from a system deployed in Iraq and tested by an Army Combat Stress Control Team. Clinical trials are currently underway at Camp Pendleton and at the San Diego Naval Medical Center and the results from two successfully treated patients are presented along with a delineation of our future plans for research and clinical care using this application.},
	journal = {Virtual Rehabilitation},
	author = {Rizzo, Albert and Graap, Ken and McLay, Robert N. and Perlman, Karen and Rothbaum, Barbara O. and Reger, Greg and Parsons, Thomas D. and Difede, JoAnn and Pair, Jarrell},
	year = {2007},
	keywords = {MedVR, Virtual Humans},
	pages = {124--130}
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