Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy: A Treatment Manual for Combat Related PTSD (bibtex)
	address = {Hoboken, NJ},
	title = {Virtual {Reality} {Exposure} {Therapy}: {A} {Treatment} {Manual} for {Combat} {Related} {PTSD}},
	url = {},
	abstract = {Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic condition that occurs in a significant minority of persons who experience life-threatening traumatic events. It is characterized by reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). PTSD has been estimated to affect up to 18\% of returning Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Veterans (Hoge et al., 2004). In addition to the specific conditions in Iraq and Afghanistan, an unprecedented number are now surviving serious wounds (Blimes, 2007). The stigma of treatment often prevents service members (SMs) and veterans from seeking help (Hoge et al., 2004), so finding an acceptable form of treatment for military personnel is a priority. The current generation of military personnel may be more comfortable participating in a virtual reality treatment approach than in traditional talk therapy, as they are likely familiar with gaming and training simulation technology. This chapter provides information on the development of and research on virtual reality (VR) as well as the application of VR to mental health treatments, including a protocol of virtual reality exposure (VRE) utilizing a virtual Iraq/Afghanistan system for combat-related PTSD.},
	booktitle = {Handbook of {Military} {Social} {Work}},
	publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.},
	author = {Leaman, Suzanne and Rothbaum, Barbara O. and Difede, JoAnn and Cukor, Judith and Gerardi, Maryrose and Rizzo, Albert},
	month = dec,
	year = {2012},
	keywords = {DoD, MedVR}
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