Effectiveness of Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain Distraction during IV Placement (bibtex)
	title = {Effectiveness of {Virtual} {Reality} for {Pediatric} {Pain} {Distraction} during {IV} {Placement}},
	volume = {9},
	url = {http://ict.usc.edu/pubs/Effectiveness%20of%20Virtual%20Reality%20for%20Pediatric%20Pain%20Distraction%20during%20IV%20Placement.pdf},
	abstract = {The objective of this study was to test the efficacy and suitability of virtual reality (VR) as apain distraction for pediatric intravenous (IV) placement. Twenty children (12 boys, 8 girls) requiring IV placement for a magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography (MRI/CT) scan were randomly assigned to two conditions: (1) VR distraction using Street Luge(5DT), presented via a head-mounted display, or (2) standard of care (topical anesthetic) with no distraction. Children, their parents, and nurses completed self-report questionnaires that assessed numerous health-related outcomes. Responses from the Faces Pain Scale–Revisedindicated a fourfold increase in affective pain within the control condition; by contrast, nosignificant differences were detected within the VR condition. Significant associations between multiple measures of anticipatory anxiety, affective pain, IV pain intensity, and measures of past procedural pain provided support for the complex interplay of a multimodalassessment of pain perception. There was also a sufficient amount of evidence supportingthe efficacy of Street Luge as a pediatric pain distraction tool during IV placement: an adequate level of presence, no simulator sickness, and significantly more child-, parent-, and nurse-reported satisfaction with pain management. VR pain distraction was positively endorsed by all reporters and is a promising tool for decreasing pain, and anxiety in childrenundergoing acute medical interventions. However, further research with larger sample sizesand other routine medical procedures is warranted.},
	number = {2},
	journal = {CyberPsychology and Behavior},
	author = {Gold, Jeffrey I. and Kim, Seok Hyeon and Kant, Alexis J. and Joseph, Michael H. and Rizzo, Albert},
	year = {2006},
	keywords = {MedVR},
	pages = {207--212}
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